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Armillary Monument
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Art Styles, Sculptures, & Symbolism

Art Styles & Sculptures


Lakewood Cemetery was founded in 1871 during the height of cemetery art in America. Over time, as monuments have been erected and preserved, the cemetery has become an outdoor museum filled with memorial art and symbolism.

Much of the memorial art found at Lakewood was popular during the Victorian era, but Lakewood is also home to non-Christian religious and cultural symbolism, representing the diversity of the Minneapolis community.

Popular Style

Between 1850 and 1930, many prominent architects and sculptors designed funeral monuments. Three styles were popular during the heyday of cemetery art: Classical Revival (a woman draped in flowing Grecian robes is typical) Egyptian Revival (the pyramid and obelisk) and Medieval Revival (hefty, round Romanesque lines or delicate detailed Gothic style).

Another popular motif featured “natural” images that copied the rugged look of rocks and trees. Monuments often imitated the look of a large, uncarved boulder to achieve this style.

One-of-a-Kind Monuments

Some cemetery sculptures portray the people whose graves they adorn, as exemplified by some sculptures of children found at Lakewood. Other sculptures were created to honor groups or cultures, such as a life-size bronze elk statue by E. L. Harvey, dedicated to the Brotherhood of Paternal Order of Elks and the pagoda-style Chinese Community Memorial. You’ll also find modern sculpture at Lakewood, including Gloria Tew's stainless steel monument erected in 1996 for Minnesota Governor Rudy Perpich.

Memorial Symbolism at Lakewood

Much of the memorial art found at Lakewood was popular during the Victorian era. These artistic styles used a language of symbols to speak to visitors about the culture, values and identity of the monument’s patron. Because of changes in memorial ritual and style over the years, some of the meanings behind symbols are no longer commonly known today.

Common Symbols


Urn — The most common funerary symbol after the cross, the urn is a traditional symbol of death because of its ancient use for holding ashes. The urn is also a symbol for a house or dwelling. When the urn is draped, it means a “house of mourning.” The design mimics the funeral urn of the ancients.

Harp — A symbol of hope, joy, and music. It is the symbol of St. Cecilia, the patron saint of musicians, and is often associated with worship in heaven.

Drapery (also called pall) — A symbol for sorrow, grief, and mourning. Some believe that draping represents the collapse of the partition between life and death, while others believe it represents the shroud left after the soul departs the body. Drapes are seen in conjunction with a number of symbols, most commonly with the urn, harp or cross.

Obelisk — Obelisks were a feature of the Egyptian Revival architectural style which reached its peak during the late 1800s. As the style was adapted by Victorian-era Christians, the obelisk came to represent rebirth and a connection between earth and heaven.

Celtic Cross — The Celtic cross is strongly tied to Mother Nature as well as Irish and/or Scottish heritage. The four arms of the cross represent the four elements of water, fire, earth and air. The Irish also see the four provinces of Ireland, with the fifth province being the circle in the center of the cross. The endless inter-laid patterns in the cross are called Celtic knots and have meaning that ranges from the mystery of life and death to immortality.

For more about symbolism, take a self-guided walking tour at Lakewood. Download the tour guide (PDF).


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Armillary Monument

An armillary sphere monument located at Lakewood